Thursday, May 21, 2020
AIDS/HIV first originated in Kinshasa, Africa during the 1920s: the time of the Great Revolution. Kinshasa had many routes that linked to other parts of the world which may help explain the disease spreading like a wildfire. AIDS/HIV began to spread through Sub-Saharan Africa mostly through heterosexual sex: the diseases main route of transmission. Then it ate up more of Africa until it began reaching other parts of the world. Another are reporting AIDS/HIV was Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo in 1937 most likely because of the high population of migrants and sex workers along the many routes of transmission. Haiti was next to blame for the further transmission of the disease across the world. When AIDS reached Haiti in the 1960s, aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦HIV-1, responsible for most of the disease today, was first discovered to have originated from Chimpanzees in 1999. HIV-2, the second type of the virus, was discovered to be transmitted through monkeys most likely through the consumption of their meat. There are two different types of the illness: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, essentially breaks down the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s CD4 cells which help to assist fighting off infections in your body. Overtime, this will hindrance your bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to fight off diseases which can be potentially life threatening. The last stage of HIV is linked to AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS is a specific group of diseases/conditions that are indicative of severe immunosuppression related to infection with HIV. This makes people infected with the disease more vulnerable to opportunistic infections which their body will be unable to fight off towards the later stages of the disease. Most people diagnosed with AIDS have an estimated three years to live, but people that do not get diagnosed have an estimated one year to survive. There are many reasons for how the disease spread across the world. For one, Kinshasa has many transportation routes: migrants crossing through and many sex workers. Once a tiny drop of infected blood gets into a healthy person the disease is immediately spread to them. When the virus first reached the United States of America, KaposiÃ¢â¬â¢s Sarcoma, a rare type of cancer that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Stem Cell Research James A Merritt PIMA Medical institute Embryonic stem cell research is a controversial topic. In the religious aspect its man trying to play the authority of GOD on whether people should live, die or suffer from ailments and injuries. On a scientific and medical aspect it is compassionate people looking for ways to enhance the quality of life by treating and possibly curing disease, illness and injuries that seem to have plagued society since the dawn of medicine. This paper will go through time lines, the benefits, pitfalls, and the economic woes of embryonic stem cell research. Sickened and weak she weeps in her hospital bed praying for a miracle that with high probability will never appear. That miracle is a bone marrow transplant due to a debilitating disease known as leukemia. As sheÃ¢â¬â¢s lying in wait, the Dr Walks in seemingly emotionless but carrying a heavy heart. He walks toward his grieving patient trying to find the proper but ultimately sincere and truthful words to let her know that without a donor she is almost certainly going to succumb. Knowing she will die without this operation, she pleads for reassurance on finding an answer to help cure this horrific and devastating disease. The Dr without hesitation thinks to himself, Ã¢â¬Å"If onlyShow MoreRelatedStem Research On Stem Cell Research1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEnglish 111-36 25 November 2014 Stem Cell Research Stem cell research has cultivated a new, miraculous study in the health field. The study has led to an increase in curing diseases over the past couple of decades. Before stem cell research, diseases were destroying and devastating lives continuously on end. With the use of stem cells in modern time, diseases are no longer taking control of lives. The innovation in biomedical technology, such as stem cell research, has greatly impacted the understandingRead MoreStem Research On Stem Cell Research1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages! ! ! Stem Cells Research ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Jabaree Shipp English III NCVPS Mrs.Gallos 8, December 2014 ! ! ! ! ! ! Throughout most of our lifetime on Earth many have pondered the thought of how they and the things around them have been created. They wondered what makes grass grow to what makes themselves grow mentally and physically. Through extensive research and major advancements in technology over these years, decades, and centuries we still have no answer to our own questions. But, we do howeverRead MoreStem Research On Stem Cell Research1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesknown as Stem Cell Research (SCR). Stem Cell Research is a relatively new field that has shown much promise to help deal with hundreds of different conditions and diseases. Though this astounding field holds the key to saving thousands of lives, there is a misguided ethical problem with Stem Cell Research raised by the church. The church only focuses on one aspect of harvesting stem cells when there is more than one way to get stem cells. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only thing that is holding SCR back. Stem CellRead MoreStem Research : Stem Cell Research1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Stem Cell Research As stem cell research progresses, it is essential that we think about the issues encompassing our future. One of the exceptionally debated topics, stem cell research, is gathering a lot of information. Stem cell research is as of now is legal in many nations. The united states, regularly a pioneer in all things new and energizing is one of the last to investigate this topic. As this sort of examination continues advancing, as citizens, we will in all likely need to vote onRead MoreStem Research On Stem Cell Research1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHiga Capstone 2 October, 2014 Stem Cell Beats Ethic Issues Stem cell research is the most controversial topic in the health field since abortion. Stem cell research however, has the potential to unlock an infinite amount of possibilities as well be the key to curing patients with terminal illnesses. Many people from around the world have their opinions on this type of research dealing with ethics, politics, and religion. The most efficient way to study stem cells is taking them from donated embryosRead MoreStem Research On Stem Cell Research1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStem Cell Research Jason Bernard BIOL-10000 July 26, 2015 Introduction In this essay, I hope to analyze both sides of the debate, and also learn more about the topic and share that information. Prior to researching this topic, I feel that any research that can help prevent or cure diseases, than the research should receive full funding and support. What Are Stem Cells? Stem cells were first discovered in the 1960s by Dr. James Till and Dr. Ernest McCulloch, professors at the University of TorontoRead MoreResearch On Stem Cell Research1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis beginning to fall behind in its advancement in research compared to the rest of the world due, to the lack of federal funding. One advancement which creates conflicts and dilemmas is stem cell research. The conflicts are specific types of stem cells are unethical and not morally right to research on, but not all stem cells are this way. Stem cell research is the study of different types of stem cells and their possible clinical uses. Stem cells can be developed to act as treatments for differentRead MoreResearch On Stem Cell Research1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmany possible methods. Stem cell research is a recent discovery that brings intense controversy: one side believes that the research is beneficial to the advancement of finding medical treatments and technologies, and the other questi ons whether the studies and experiments done in the field are ethical. Before understanding the history of stem cell research, one must understand its possibility of being used to cure people with medical problems, and that continued research will bring many new andRead MoreA Research On Stem Cell Research924 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesscientific knowledge gained from stem cell research has proven very useful, yet the knowledge did not come without the destruction of human embryos. According to Healy, Bernadine P. Ã¢â¬Å"The Government Must Regulate Stem Cell ResearchÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬ stem cellsÃ¢â¬ come from human embryo or fetus that is at its first stage of development in which it is in its single cell form before it starts its development stage or complex stage (Bernadine). What this means is, stem cells, at its single cell stage doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any functionRead MoreResearch On Stem Cell Research1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProhibit Stem Cell Research Many individuals believe that the beginning of stem cell research began in the early 2000s. However, the history of stem cell research can be traced back to the mid 1800s, when the make-up of human life, known as cells, were discovered (Solter 2006). Without this discovery, stem cell research would cease to exist. Prior to what has become known as stem cell research, scientists began studying embryonic stem cells using mouse embryos in 1981, which makes stem cell research
The story opens in 1919 after the war and we are first introduces to an old woman named Nicks, a native American living in Canadian we learn she is a medicine woman and healer. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the last of her clan to live in the bush, having fought off going to the reserves and governments wanting to take the Indian out of the Indian at the time. She hears that her nephew whoso been sent off to the war has returned and paddles a long way to get to the train station. We will write a custom essay sample on Three day road summary or any similar topic only for you Order Now She sees Just how much the war has left him damaged: heÃ¢â¬â¢s lost a leg and Is addicted to morphine, which was the pain medicine was used at the time. She understands that heÃ¢â¬â¢s actually close to death and as she paddles him home, she realizes that In order to help him all she has to offer are the stones of her life. While she does this, Xavier who canÃ¢â¬â¢t even talk and almost deaf Internally reflects on the past number of years, on his experience In the war with his childhood friend Elijah. This gives way to two different stories, two different narrators Nicks and Xavier. The novel Is structured Like one of those Russian Matrons dolls, the ones where you open up the doll to find other, smaller dolls inside. Nicks tells Xavier stories of her life, Elijah is obsessively compelled to tell Xavier war stories and poor Xavier is too damaged to speak of his own stories and so relives them in his morphine-addled head. One of the many ironies is that the skills of the two friends used for hunting in the bush become incredibly valuable on the battle field. The army quickly realizes their skill as trackers and as marksmen and so they are made into snipers quite quickly once they reach the front. Although their killing-abilities are remarkably respected and quite well regarded by the rest of the regiment, they still face racism within the army as a consequence of who they are. The characters feel very much like they eave to prove themselves as they face prejudice. Elijah discovers a lust for killing and is encouraged by some French soldiers to retrieve the scalps of his victims to prove heÃ¢â¬â¢s killed as many as he claims. He treats the war as a game wanting to be the one to hold the most kills, while Xavier tries to come to terms with his devastating war-experiences. Elijah In his madness becomes a virtual killing machine, a winding In native terms. The welding Is a two sided thing: legend goes that If a person eats another human being In times of great starvation then he will grow to great heights and have an Insatiable appetite. The notion has a psychological aspect too: moral boundaries are hard to set when In the trenches and some Like Elijah get carried away by It all to a point of no return. Three day road summary By floral Indian at the time. She hears that her nephew whoÃ¢â¬â¢s been sent off to the war has the war has left him damaged: heÃ¢â¬â¢s lost a leg and is addicted to morphine, which was death and as she paddles him home, she realizes that in order to help him all she has to offer are the stories of her life. While she does this, Xavier who canÃ¢â¬â¢t even talk and almost deaf internally reflects on the past number of years, on his experience in he war with his childhood friend Elijah. How to cite Three day road summary, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Metamorphosis: Response Gregor had alienated himself long before his metamorphosis into a beetle. His obsession with his job had dehumanized him, made him less personal and more mechanical. While on business trips, he began to lock his doors at night in the hotels. He carried this action back to his homelife. His family did not know him anymore partially because they took him for granted for making their money for them and partially because that was simply how he wanted in to be. Gregor's metamorphosis into a beetle only allowed his family and himself to consciously alienate him from society and the world. As someone said to meI can't remember who it was-it is really remarkable that when you wake up in the morning you nearly always find everything in exactly the same place as the night before. For when asleep and dreaming you are, apparently at least, in as essentially different state from that of wakefulness; and therefore, as that man truly said, it requires enormous, presence of mind or rather quickness of wit, when opening your eyes to seize hold as it were of everything in the room at exactly the same place where you had let it go on the previous evening. That was why, he said, the moment of waking up was the riskiest moment of the say. Once that was well over without deflecting you from your orbit, you could take heart of grace for the rest of your day. Gregor woke up one morning to find himself turned from a human being to a beetle. People found that to be extremely hard to grasp. Many felt as though Gregor should have been more shocked at this change, or at least less understanding towards it. But really, why should he? The only part about being a beetle that seemed to truly negatively shock Gregor was that he could no longer attend to his job at the office. Gregor's family life did not change drastically. His loss of relation with his family was nothing very new, there was a lacking of personal connection with his parents for quite awhile before hand. His parents treated him as a form of hired help since he had taken the job to pay for his father's debts. Grete, Gregor's sister, seemed to be the only family member to change her perception of Gregor. She went from being the overemotional, little seventeen-year-old girl to a bitter, matured stranger_the first in the Samsa household to declare that Gregor needed to be exterminated. Gregor did not seemed shocked that his family wanted to kill him off either, almost as if he had been expecting it. He was only upset because he had scared his sister. It was as though Gregor had removed himself completely from his self, bordering on indifference. Self-alienation was the word commonly used to describe Gregor's state in the end. Although this self-alienation came strongest in the end of his life, it had been occurring from the moment Gregor accepted his life at the office. Alienation coming from his family had been occurring from the moment as well. Could anything have been done to stop either? Pessimistically speaking, no. Gregor accepted the office thinking that it would later lead to a happier and more self-fulfilling future. Most people do this in everyday life. We do one thing after another, building stepping stones that we will rarely achieve only because we will never be satisfied with what we have in the end and force ourselves to keep going. This is the way of a vast portion of the world's population. Lack of satisfaction is what keeps us going. Should we ever achieve full satisfaction, we will have no purpose.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
geopolitics essays Geopolitics is the applied study of the relationships of geographical space to politics. Geopolitics, therefore, concerned with the reciprocal impact of spatial patterns, features, and structures and political ideas, institutions, and transactions. The term 'Geopolitics' has originally invented, in 1899, by a Swedish political scientist, Rudolf Kjellen and its original meaning is to signify a general concern with geography and politics. However, defining the concept of 'geopolitics' itself is a considerably difficult task because definition of geopolitics tends to changes as historical periods of time and structures of world order change. Therefore, there have been numerous ways of interpreting the term and arguments on them all through the history. In this essay, I intend to examine how geopolitics has influenced on international relations and how it has evolved using well-known geopoliticians' theories in a chronological order: Imperialist, Cold War, and New World Order. In early 20th century, geopolitics was a form of power or knowledge concerned with promoting states expansionism and securing empires. It was a time characterized by colonial expansionism abroad and industrial modernization at home. This is also the time when natural supremacy of a certain race or the state has considerably prevailed. The most historically and geographically fated imperialist rivalry of the period was that of between British Empire and the rising imperial aspirations of the German state in Europe. In order to investigate the geopolitical tension between them, the geopolitical writings of the British geographer Halford Mackinder and of the German geopolitician Karl Haushofer have to be thoroughly examined. In addition, it is also needed to examine the view of the far side across the Atlantic, the United States that emerged as a significant player on world's stage later on. First of all, the starting point for almost all discussions of geopolit...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Add/Delete Questions on SAT Writing 6 Steps to Answer SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Add/Delete questions require you to determine whether a sentence should be added or deleted from a passage. There are multiple add/delete questions on SAT Writing, so figuring out how to tackle these questions is imperative to improving your Writing score. In this post, I'll do the following: Explain add/delete questions Teach you the basic constructions of add/delete questions Provide example questions Give you strategies and a step-by-step approach for answering these questions Add/Delete on SAT Writing Add/Delete questions ask you if a sentence should be added or deleted from a specific part of a passage. Typically, these questions involve two parts: you have to determine if the sentence should be added or deleted, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll also have to select why the sentence should be added or deleted. These questions require reading comprehension and understanding how a sentence fits within a passage. Generally, there are about 2-4 add/delete questions on the SAT Writing section. General Construction of Add/Delete Questions Being able to identify an add/delete question will help you determine how to quickly and efficiently select the right answer. Here are the general constructions for the add/delete questions youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find on SAT Writing. Add Questions This is the general construction of an add question: At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence. [Question Sentence Here] Should the writer make this addition here? A. Yes, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ B. Yes, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ C. No, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ D. No, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ You have to determine if the sentence should be added and identify the reason why it should or shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be added. Delete Questions Here is how delete questions are constructed: The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should the writer do this? A. Yes, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ B. Yes, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ C. No, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ D. No, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ Or you might see a delete question posed like this: The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should the sentence be kept or deleted? A. Kept, because B. Kept, because C. Deleted, because D. Deleted, because For delete questions, you have to determine if the underlined sentence makes sense at that point in the passage. Both questions are asking the same thing, but the wording of the questions is slightly different. Also, pay attention to the answer choices. In the first type, you choose answer choice A or B if the sentence should be deleted. In the second type, you choose choice C or D if the sentence should be deleted. Always read the question and answers carefully. Now we know how add/delete questions are constructed. Step-by-Step Guide to Add/Delete Questions Here are the steps to follow to answer add and delete questions. Add Questions These are the first two paragraphs of a passage and an add question from a practice SAT. #1: Analyze the Added Sentence to See What ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Doing The sentence is pretty straightforward. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s stating that some scholars believe that the lavishness of the lifestyles during the reign of King Louis XV helped bring about the conditions that caused the French Revolution. #2: Refer Back to the Passage to See if the Sentence Should Be Added Given Where It Would Be Placed The added sentence must be relevant in context. It must logically follow previous sentences and set up the information that comes after it. While the previous sentence references King Louis XV, the passage up to that point is about an exhibit showing tiny rooms. The following sentences are a description of the miniature salon. The sentence in question wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense because the focus of the paragraph is on the appearance of the room and has nothing to do with whether or not the excesses of the era caused the French Revolution. #3: Answer the Yes or No Question First Because the sentence wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t logically fit in the context of the passage, we can determine that the answer is no. #4: Eliminate the Two Ã¢â¬Å"YesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"NoÃ¢â¬ Answer Choices Because the answer is no, we can immediately eliminate A and B. #5: Provide the Reasoning in Your Own Words In my own words, I would say that the sentence shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be added because the paragraph is focusing on the appearance of the room. #6: Pick the Answer Choice That Most Closely Matches Your Reasoning Answer choice D is wrong because there is no mention of the interior designer. Again, the focus is on what the room looks like. The correct answer is C. It most closely matches our reasoning. Adding the irrelevant sentence would disrupt the description of the miniature salon. Delete Questions Next, I'll walk you through how to answer a delete question. The steps are very similar to those of the add questions. #1: Determine the Purpose of the Deleted Sentence The sentence is providing the cost of starting a new coworking business in the US. #2: Refer Back to the Passage to Determine if the Sentence Should Be Deleted Based on Its Location in the Passage In our example, we have to determine if providing the cost of starting a coworking business is relevant to the focus of the passage. The passage is describing coworking spaces. Nowhere else is there information about starting a coworking business. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not reading closely, you may see the word Ã¢â¬Å"feeÃ¢â¬ in the first sentence, and then assume that thatÃ¢â¬â¢s related to the underlined sentence. However, the first sentence just mentions that you can use coworking spaces for a fee; it has nothing to do with starting a coworking business. Again, the focus is on the traits and qualities of coworking spaces. #3: Answer the Kept or Deleted Question First Because the sentence is irrelevant to the focus of the paragraph, the sentence should be deleted. #4: Eliminate the Two Kept or Deleted Answer Choices Because the sentence should be deleted, we can eliminate choices A and B. #5: Provide the Reasoning in Your Own Words I would say that the sentence should be deleted because the cost of starting a coworking business isnÃ¢â¬â¢t related to the paragraphÃ¢â¬â¢s focus of describing coworking spaces. #6: Select the Answer Choice That Most Closely Matches Your Reasoning While I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide the previous paragraph, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no mention of the cost of starting a coworking business in that paragraph. We can eliminate answer choice D. The correct answer is C. The sentence isnÃ¢â¬â¢t related to the paragraphÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus. Sean MacEntee/Flickr Quick Review: General Strategies HereÃ¢â¬â¢s advice to follow when answering all add/delete questions. #1: Determine the Purpose or Summarize the Sentence That Would Be Added or Deleted In order to decide whether to add or delete a sentence, you need to know what the sentence means and why it would be included in the passage. #2: Refer Back to the Passage to Determine If the Added or Deleted Sentence Logically Fits Any added sentence should logically follow the previous sentence and connect to the following sentence. Additionally, an added sentence must be relevant to the focus of the paragraph or passage. A sentence should be deleted if it falls outside the scope of the passage or doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t logically connect to the previous and following sentences. #3: Answer the First Part First Answer the Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ question or Ã¢â¬Å"keptÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"deletedÃ¢â¬ question first. #4: Eliminate Wrong Answer Choices You can immediately eliminate the two answer choices that donÃ¢â¬â¢t match your answer to the first part of the question. If it's an add question and you think the sentence should be added, you can get rid of the answer choices that state the sentence shouldn't be added. Or if you think the sentence shouldn't be added, you can get rid of the two answer choices that claim the sentence should be added. #5: Select the Answer Choice That Most Clearly Matches Your Reasoning For all add/delete questions, before selecting an answer, determine in your own words why a sentence should be added or deleted. Ideally, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see an answer choice thatÃ¢â¬â¢s almost identical to your reasoning. If thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no answer that matches your reasoning, work backwards to select the correct answer. Start with the answer choice and then determine if it's accurate. Or, if time permits, review the question/passage again to make sure you didn't make a mistake. What's Next? As you're preparing to become an SAT Writing superstar, make sure you thoroughly understand the most important grammar rules on SAT Writing. Also, if you're not yet familiar with the most recent changes to the SAT, find out about what's different and how to prepare for the new SAT Writing. Finally, learn how diligence and the proper methods can help you get a perfect SAT score. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Writing and grammar lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Critically assess the usefulness of Gabriel Almond's political cultural approach in his 1956 article Comparative Political Syste - Essay Example Various regimes in Europe have experienced such political unrest due to conflicts among the nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ different leaders, giving rise to political instability and eventual economic breakdown, which include FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s Third and Fourth Republic, GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Weimar Republic, and ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s Post-World War II government. The rise and fall of such regimes in these countries can be explained through two lines of thought: one is Gabriel AlmondÃ¢â¬â¢s comparative political systems which differentiate the various kinds of governance in countries according to how the country is run by the government; and another is Giovanni SartoriÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of polarised plural systems, which points out the importance of political parties needing to work together and not strongly-opposing one another. By combining these two concepts, it will better explain why political instability plays a major role in governance, both in the past such as in FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s Third and Fourth Republic and GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Weimar Republic, as well as the persistence of this issue in Italian governance for a much longer time. Comparative Political Systems by Gabriel Almond Gabriel Almond published a classification system which compares various kinds of political systems, how each one governs the nation, as well as stating where such kinds of governance are mostly found. ... ssible that the kind of governance in each country may depend on their internal resources, customs and ideologies, and other factors that may or may not align with the definitions of the extant classification systems (Almond, 1956). Thus Almond proposes other kinds of political systems which are much more defined by the culture where each one is based on: Anglo-American political systems, usually composed of a uniform and secular group of people; Pre-industrial political systems, wherein there is a mixture of political systems due to the proliferation of traditional ideas and culture amidst modernist views; Totalitarian political systems in which leadership is centralised and there is actually no need for an overall consensus due to the dominance of only one party or one leader; and the Continental European political systems, wherein the lack of a unified political culture is due to the persistence of various cultures, both new and old and their wide gaps in terms of growth, developm ent and acceptance among the leaders, various parties, and among the citizens. According to Almond, France, Germany and Italy belong to the Continental European political systems due to high variations between the ruling parties and of differing views within the leadership system (Almond, 1956, p. 406). In explaining the political instability in France during the Third and Fourth Republic, of Germany during the Weimar Republic and of Italy after World War II, their respective politics are included in the Continental European political systems because of the various subcultures that exist within each country that causes disunity within the leadership itself. In the case of France, in both the Third and Fourth Republic issues such as the distrust between the leftists and the rightists were